Tony Campbell

Tony Campbell was a map dealer (Francis Edwards, later Weinreb & Douwma/Robert Douwma Ltd - 1964-84), then in the British Library Map Library (Map Librarian 1987-2001). He is Chairman of Imago Mundi Ltd, in which role he coordinates the International Conferences on the History of Cartography.

Since 1997 he has maintained the 'Map History' gateway site. Author of Early Maps (1981), The Earliest Printed Maps, 1472-1500 (1987), the chapter on Portolan Charts in Volume 1 of The History of Cartography (1987), and numerous articles.

www.maphistory.info

Content Posted by Tony Campbell

Episodes from the early history of British Admiralty charting

IN ONE YEAR, 1860, the Hydrographic Department of the Admiralty sold 140,000 charts, an average of over fifty copies of each of the 2,500 separate sheets then in print. By the end of the nineteenth century that number would have quadrupled; yet Admiralty charts are hard to find today. The reason is simple, and probably obvious: loose sheet navigational charts have always been treated as functional objects and no more – to be annotated, rolled up or folded as convenience dictated, and eventually thrown away. For the modern collector, Admiralty charts have at least three advantages. Their inclusive coverage of the world's coastlines gives them relevance to anyone who lives by the coast or who goes down to the sea in ships. Then, their contemporary scarcity makes for a difficult and hence satisfying hunt. Finally, when a relevant sheet is located it may well prove to be inexpensive, because the unsurpassed merits of British Admiralty charting are not widely appreciated outside hydrographical circles!



The Original Monthly Numbers of Moule's 'English Counties'

Moule's English Counties' has long been admired for its ornate maps, the lust decorative county series to be published. The recent discovery of a set of the monthly numbers, the only one of the original 10,000 known to have survived, allows the work's seven-year development to be described for the first time. Tony Campbell, who works in the British Library Map Library, examines one of the Library's more interesting recent acquisitions, answering some questions and posing others.



A dark deed mapped by the originator of the Penny Black

As every English schoolboy knows (or once knew) Rowland Hill established the Penny Post in 1840. Few, if any, historians of cartography are aware that he also produced at least three maps, although only one of them was definitely published.1



Understanding engraved maps

THE SEVEN SYLLABLES of 'cartobibliography' trip lightly off some tongues. but a number of readers may view the word with unease. What arc 'states', 'editions', and 'watermarks' beside the thrill of the chase? Convinced, however, that a better understanding of how printed maps were made and revised will give added enjoyment to those who collect or study maps. this article will attempt to break down the barrier separating the so¬called amateur from the so-called expert. The study of old maps is one of the more democratic branches of history. Provided there is access to original maps, the observant novice can make an immediate and worthwile contribution to the subject.



Letter Punches: a Little-Known Feature of Early Engraved Maps

The development of lettering and numeral punches in fifteenth-century Italy, as a semi-mechanical alternative to the engraver's burin, marks a little-known point of contact between the histories of engraving and cartography. 1 One of the unique features of a map is its necessarily dense toponymy, requiring the time-consuming skills of an experienced lettering engraver. Very early in the history of printed maps, indeed during preparation of the first set of maps to be engraved (if not quite the first to be published), punching was devised as a labour-saving alternative.



Cartochronology, or helpful hints on how to get a date

PRESUMABLY ALL READERS of The Map Collector, whether scholars, collectors, curators, dealers or just plain cartophiles, have been frequently faced with the problem of assigning an undated map to a plausible period. Different situations call for different approaches. If you are lucky, somebody else has already done the work and it is just a matter of running the right bibliographical or cartobibliographical reference to earth. Following biographical leads can be particularly rewarding. Information about the careers of surveyors, mapmakers, engravers and publishers often helps to pare away at the lunatic fringes of dating suggestions. Not that the literature is free from instances of cartographic geniuses who apparently produced work before their tenth birthday and others who continued hale and hearty decades after their death.



One map, two purposes: Willem Blaeu's second 'West Indische paskaart' of 1630.

AT FIRST GLANCE, the recently discovered map of North America and the West Indies[1] illustrated here might seem a typical example of seventeenth-century Dutch work. The reverse text found on the original would also tend to confirm that the sheet derived from one of the standard Amsterdam atlases. A number of oddities, however, become apparent on a closer look. The twin circles by the Tropic of Cancer, for example, are incomplete, and only the final part of the inscription in the top left-hand corner is present, [Americae Septentrio]nalis Pars. And why is there a beheaded Amerindian at the foot of the sheet?



Bibliographical Notes on Nineteenth Century British Admiralty Charts

by Andrew David and Tony Campbell

In the December issue we included a general introduction to the history of British Admiralty charting by Tony Campbell. Here, he and Lieut-Commander Andrew David, RN of the Hydrographic Department, Ministry of Defence, Taunton plot a careful course through the bibliographical confusion surrounding the engraved charts. Armed with these comments on various aspects of their publication, particularly that of date, collectors and librarians should have a better understanding of the charts already in their possession or of those offered to them.



A False Start on Christopher Saxton's Wall-map of 1583?

This is the amazing story of a discovery by Tony Campbell, a director of Robert Douwma Maps & Prints in London, and his hypotheses about the origins of his find - a very rare copper plate showing a section of Saxton's wall-map which until recently had been hidden under a seventeenth century painting



Martin Llewellyn's Atlas of the East (c. 1598)

In early 1969, on a visit to Oxford, I decided to call in at Christ Church, Oxford's largest college, in the hope that their library might contain some unusual cartographic material. What I found far exceeded my wildest expectations. Intrigued by an item described in their hand-written catalogue as, 'Maps - 18th century, English and Foreign', I asked to see what proved to be Martin Llewellyn's atlas of the East. It is my contention that this volume, which had lain unknown to map historians for over three and a half centuries, constitutes the earliest sea atlas by an Englishman, so far identified; and that it contains the earliest known English charts of the East. Its printed equivalent, the Oriental volume of the English Pilot, was not to appear for a further century. Indeed, no earlier sea atlas expressly designed for navigation in the East by a chartmaker of any nationality has yet been identified, although Portuguese world atlases would normally include a coverage of the East. It is beyond dispute that his atlas introduces a new and important chartmaker into the ranks of those working in late Elizabethan or early Jacobean England.